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干货:造成不稳定进近的原因(2)

接着上一篇:干货推荐:稳定进近的误解与误读(1)

今天继续学习FSF(国际飞安基金会)的研究报告:

(不想看英文的往下翻,有翻译)

Factors in Unstabilized Approaches

Unstabilized approaches are attributed to:

• Fatigue;

• Pressure of flight schedule (making up for delays);

• Any crew-induced or ATC-induced circumstances resulting in insufficient time to plan, prepare and conduct a safe approach. This includes accepting requests from ATC to fly higher/faster or to fly shorter routings than desired;

• ATC instructions that result in flying too high/too fast during the initial approach;

• Excessive altitude or excessive airspeed (e.g., inadequate energy management) early in the approach;

• Late runway change (lack of ATC awareness of the time required by the flight crew to reconfigure the aircraft for a new approach);

• Excessive head-down work (e.g., flight management system [FMS] reprogramming);

• Short outbound leg or short downwind leg (e.g., because of traffic in the area);

• Late takeover from automation (e.g., because the autopilot [AP] fails to capture the glideslope);

• Premature descent or late descent caused by failure to positively identify the final approach fix (FAF);

• Inadequate awareness of wind conditions, including:

– Tail-wind component;

– Low-altitude wind shear;

– Local wind gradient and turbulence (because of terrain or buildings); or,

– Recent weather along the final approach path (e.g., wind shift or downdrafts caused by a descending cold air mass following a rain shower);

• Incorrect anticipation of aircraft deceleration characteristics in level flight or on a three-degree glide path;

• Failure to recognize deviations or failure to adhere to the excessive-parameter-deviation limits;

• Belief that the aircraft will be stabilized at the minimum stabilization height or shortly thereafter;

• Excessive confidence by the PNF that the pilot flying (PF) will achieve a timely stabilization;

• PF-PNF too reliant on each other to call excessive deviations or to call for a go-around; and,

• Visual illusions.

造成不稳定进近的原因:

不稳定进近归因于:

  • 疲劳;

  • 航班正点的压力(弥补延误);

  • 任何机组或ATC引起的导致没有足够的时间来计划、准备和实施安全的进近的情况。这包括接受来自ATC的要求高高度/大速度或切入比预计更短的航线;

  • ATC指令在起始进近航段导致飞得太高/太快;

  • 开始进近时,高度过高或速度过大(例如,没做好能量管理);

  • 更改跑道时机太晚(ATC缺乏对于机组人员为重新准备进近所需的时间的意识);

  • 过多的低头工作(例如,飞行管理系统FMS重新准备);

  • 出航边太短或三边太短(例如,由于飞机太多);

  • 手动接管过晚(例如,因为自动驾驶仪未能截获下滑道);

  • 未能确定最终进近定位(FAF)导致的过早下降或晚下降;

  • 对风的影响认识不足,包括:

- 顺风分量;

- 低空风切变;

- 当地的风的梯度和湍流(由于地形或建筑物);或者,

- 沿最后进近路径的最近天气影响(例如,由阵雨后的下沉冷气团引起的风的变化或下洗气流)。

  • 在平飞或三度下滑路径上对飞机减速特性的预计不正确;

  • 未能识别偏差或未能遵守超出参数偏差的限制;

  • 相信飞机将会在最低稳定高度或此后不久建立稳定进近;

  • PNF过度信任PF将可以按时建立稳定进近;

  • PF-PNF对彼此之间会进行的偏差过度或复飞的提醒过于依赖;

  • 视觉错觉。

以上基于FSF(国际飞安基金)的ALAR(进近和着陆事故降低)研究文献,供大家学习!

感谢飞行圈麦机长协助翻译校对

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